MISOPHONIA AND HYPERACUSIS
Neuroscientists have long been investigating the different ways in which our nervous system reacts to sounds, and have found that certain people are more auditory sensitive than others; their auditory systems are described as being ‘over-responsive’ to stimuli. (Auditory over-responsiveness)
Hyperacusis is a condition that comes from a difficulty in the way the brain’s central auditory processing centre perceives noises.
Individuals with hyperacusis have difficulty tolerating sounds which do not seem loud to others, such as the noise from the dishwasher, fan on the refrigerator, or shuffling papers. Such sensitivity to the most ambient noise can have huge impact on the person’s day to day activities. Hyperacusis may be a result of injury or trauma, and can develop gradually over time. Conditions associated with hyperacusis include Post-traumatic stress disorder, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Epilepsy, Tinnitus, Migraine headaches and Depression. Currently, there are no specific corrective surgical or medical treatments for hyperacusis. However, sound therapy may retrain the auditory processing center of the brain to accept everyday sounds. This works on the basis of neuroplasticity (Brout, 2018), and should not be confused with psychological interventions such as CBT or exposure therapy.
Misophonia is a neuro-otological diagnosis in which certain auditory stimuli are being interpreted by the brain as threats. The condition was established in 2001 by American otolaryngologists Pawel and Margaret Jastreboff. They observed that some people reacted to sounds such as chewing, keyboard typing, and coughing, with high levels of irritability, elevated heart beat, muscle tension and sweating, along with other stress responses and strong negative emotions.
Hyperacusis and misophonia are different conditions. Unlike people with hyperacusis, individuals with misophonia respond particularly strongly to repetitive and pattern-based sounds.In hyperacusis, the response to the sound was felt as physical pain in the ear canal. In misophonia, the reactions were more emotional, involving fear, panic and irritability, and go alongside other physical stress reactions such as racing heart and tight chest, but dissipate when the noise goes away. In hyperacussis, the louder the noise, the greater the pain, while in misophonia, it was not the loudness that constitute the reactions; Regardless of the sound’s loudness and frequency, the emotional response and whole-body contraction are instantaneous.
Existing research on the cause of misophonia is limited. So far, we know that auditory over-responsivity is related to the part of the brain called the amagdala, which plays an important role in the body’s fight/flight/freeze processes. Although physiological responses are induced as a result of triggering noises, misophonia is neurological in nature, and is not a psychiatric disorder. Therefore, psychological interventions such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or ‘Exposure Therapy’ actually makes the condition worse rather than better.
sensitivity as a form of NEURO-DIVERSITY
People’s brains vary. Research has validated that some people are born with certain kind of biochemical, or neurological make up that can make them more emotionally or intellectually intense, sensitive, and more open to external stimuli than the general population.
Neurodiversity is a biological reality; the term describes the infinite variation in our ways of functioning as human.In fact, the idea that there is one “normal” or “healthy” way of perceiving and being in the world is merely a cultural construct (Foucoult).
Nowadays, understanding towards mental health and health are often confined to boxing people based on a disorder or diagnosis. Whilst there are certainly tremendous value in acquiring a formal diagnosis (accessing the right treatment, feeling validated for the difficulties, realising that one is not alone, research), such ‘one size fit all’ mentality has its limitations.
The neurodiversity paradigm suggests the diversity embedded amongst us, though challenging to meander at times, make us stronger as a species, as communities, and as people. Having a group of individuals who functions more intensely in the world is not only a natural form of human diversity, but is also an essential factor in our evolution and the progression of our collective consciousness. This perspective is the opposite of the medical model, which contends that there is a ‘normal’ and desirable way of functioning, and the rest are disorders.
Awareness and information about individual differences are invaluable in that they can help you make sense of your life history. By reviewing events and difficulties that you have experienced through a new perspective, you can realise where many of the old hurtful, uninvited commentary might have come from, and be liberated to embark on a journey of true self-discovery.