The Enneagram in Psychotherapy and Coaching


The Enneagram is a powerful tool for psycho-spiritual growth. It does not put any of us in a ‘box’. It helps us work with our nuanced personality differences by tapping into our unique shadows and strengths.


Do you want to know your deepest desires, drive, passions and strengths?

Are you interested in knowing your true, soulful self?

Do you want to be more intuitive, empathic and compassionate with your loved ones? 

The enneagram consists of nine pointers of human psychology that helps us plunge deep into our unconscious, as well as our collective unconscious. 

The Enneagram is not just a personality typology but a tool for deep spiritual transformations. 


What is the Enneagram?


The Enneagram is a powerful tool and typology system for personal development. It is a type of system that describes the human personality as 9 specific “types,” also known as Enneatypes. The idea with the Enneagram is not to ‘box in’ anyone to a set of traits. The nine types are ‘archetypes’, and they represent universal qualities that all of us have the potential to exhibit. We tend to resonate with one specific set of traits, but that does not limit the scope of our personality. 

This unique system for personal development, spiritual transformation (if one is open to this) and potential collective healing and transformation stems from the Greek “ennea,” meaning nine, and also Greek “grammos”- a symbol. The Enneagram itself is represented by a circle connecting the nine types in a nine- point diagram. These nine personality types represent patterns of thinking, feeling, perceiving and relating to others, in addition to root struggles, predictions surrounding behavior and emotions, and virtually all aspects of one’s life decisions and choices. 

History of the Enneagram 


The exact origins of the Enneagram are somewhat unknown, and also a slight mystery. It is believed that this unique system for self- development stems back to Ancient Greek, mainly due to the origins of the word itself; however, it is a synthesis of a number of religious traditions, including Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism and Hinduism. Yet, the Enneagram is not religious. It is, however, a tool for the acceleration of spiritual awakening and transformation, which naturally arises with learning about ourselves in a dynamic and holistic way. 


The person responsible for bringing the Enneagram to the Western World, arguably acting as a “bridge” or messenger between ancient times and new, was a mystic. Mystic and philosopher George Ivanovich Gurdjieff is said to have played a fundamental role in the Enneagram’s emergence. However, Gurjieff didn’t emphasize personality types. The finding and creation of the 9 enneatypes were down to Oscar Ichazo, and his followers.

The 9 Personality Types


Let’s briefly explore the essence and meaning of the 9 personality types.

1. The Reformer

Reformers, or “type 1’s,” are perfectionists and full of purpose. They are self-controlled and strive for integrity in all they do. Type 1’s have a very strong sense of what is the “right” and “wrong” way to do things, and are idealistic with strong principles, values and morals. Positive qualities and attributes include being honest, responsible and dependable. Type 1 shadow traits? They can be very judgemental, intolerable and uncompromising! 1’s are also known for their highly critical nature (however this mainly due to being so idealistic with high morals). 


2. The Helper

Type 2’s are generous, empathic, and relationship-oriented. They have a strong desire to be loved, give love, and generally care for others. Helpers/ type 2’s value peace and harmony in relationships and often find themselves taking on a mediating or diplomatic role. However, they can sometimes deny their own needs in order to make others happy, also being too self- sacrificing. Other shadow traits include being naive and severely codependent. However, they are genuine, compassionate, good listeners, and a strong emotional support system for those they love.


3. The Achiever/ Performer 

Personality type 3’s are driven to excel, success-oriented, energetic and pragmatic. They give their attention to fame, success or fortunate and aren’t shy of admiration, or being in the spotlight. Highly adaptable, high- flying and generally successful in all they put their mind to, tye 3’s work well with others and can communicate well. A major strength is in their emotional connection and intelligence, which they use and channel into getting things done. Shadow aspects for them include being impatient, overly competitive, not knowing when to take a break from work, and focusing too much on external praise or materialism. 


4. The Individualist/ Romantic

Type 4s and individualists and romantics. The can be dramatic, expressive, and forward-thinking. They can also be very emotional, sensitive, withdrawn and too focused on their own feelings, manifesting as becoming self- absorbed. They have a strong sense of identity but can be temperamental and prone to melancholy and moodiness at times. Like the archetypal “hopeless romantic” and “gifted but suffering artist,” type 4’s are the sensitive souls who are usually extremely gifted artistically and creatively, yet, due to their extreme romanticism steer towards their shadow personality traits. The sense that something is missing from their life often leads to a quest for wholeness through the healing arts, mysticism, spirituality or idealism, either romantic idealism or on the humanitarian wave. 

The major positive aspects to 4’s is their advanced creativity and ability to express universal human emotions through music, art, poetry and dance. They are highly compassionate, empathic, and idealistic with emotional depth and maturity.


5. The Observer

Type 5’s are also known as Investigators and are innovative, intelligent, original thinkers and highly perceptive. They have a tendency to become isolated and detached, secretive and suffer from chaotic or difficult emotions, but they simultaneously possess a unique ability to become detached which allows them to thrive in all matters of reason, logic, and problem- solving. Unfortunately, people often misinterpret their quiet and thoughtfulness as arrogance or conceit, and this is what can ironically lead to their isolation or over- intellectualism. However, type 4’s thrive in scholarly or creative pursuits and can achieve great levels of self- reliance. 


6. The Loyalist

Type 6’s are responsible, committed and attentive to people’s problems. Because they are so loyal, they often enjoy long-lasting relationships and can be very trustworthy and devoted, also aware of what is going on around them. Type 6’s shadow aspects? They can be very worry-some! Due to their need for security and connection, they may sometimes become anxious and suspicious or tend to dwell on the negative. Despite these traits, type 6’s make wonderful friends, lovers and team- layers and often focus, and direct their energy towards community projects and groupwork. They can thrive in a crisis and possess a unique courage and strength which comes with their innate loyalty to self and others. 


7. The Enthusiast

Type 7’s, or Enthusiasts, are spontaneous, fun-loving, and versatile. They are forward- thinkers and rely heavily on their mental abilities and communication skills. People with this personality type tend to be extroverted, social, fun- loving, and enjoy staying busy. However, they can also be easily distracted and unfocused. They might start things without finishing them or become scattered and self- absorbed- they have a tendency towards fear of commitment. They can make up for this through their fun- loving, optimistic and joyful nature, however. Type 7’s enjoy travel, adventure and intellectual pursuits and interests.


8. The Challenger

Type 8’s are bold, dominating, decisive and self- confident. They love to take charge, and often thrive in business and entrepreneurial matters. Leadership comes naturally to them and they have a strong inner power which when channeled wisely and constructively- can manifest great change in the world. Their shadow side is that they can often appear as domineering and aggressive, or at the very least highly confrontational. This “dark” aspect of self has its light, however, as type 8’s will always defend an underdog or use their strength and inner power to protect someone in need. Great success can come to 8’s, and combined with their intense energy, ambition and highly- aspired nature; type’s 8’s are one of the most successful personality types on the earth plane. (In the material/ physical world.) They are generous, enthusiastic and sincere, but sometimes impatient, competitive and over- bearing. 


9. The Peacemaker

Type 9’s are Peacemakers and Mediators, loving harmony, cooperation and an easy- going life. Defined by their easy- going nature, inner balance and personal sense of harmony, type 9’s thrive in any counselling, mediation or diplomacy role. People with this personality type tend to avoid conflict, and when using this character trait productively and in an action- oriented way (as opposed to through avoidance or escapism, for example) they can accomplish great things. The type 9 personality is balanced at the top and center of the Enneagram, meaning that they both have a highly grounding quality to them and are often people’s gem, or rock. They are receptive, agreeable, compromising and understanding, and they are also highly compassionate and empathetic. Their only down- side is that they can become lost in ininertian (lack of momentum and “moving- forward!”), complacency, indecisiveness and facing responsibilities, the latter due to their extreme avoidance of conflict. 


How is the Enneagram A System for Healing and Growth?


Let’s look at the benefits and effects of using the Enneagram for self- exploration, healing, personal transformation and growth.


  • At the heart of each person lie unique strengths that enable us to thrive. The Enneagram helps you to become more objectively aware of your personality “blind spots,” recognizing your shadow aspects and further learning to overcome them. We all have a shadow or dark, and a light side; hence why so many traditions, teachings and schools of thought speak of “enlightenment.” Enlightenment is literally finding the light within, yet just like day flowing into night and darkness and light existing simultaneously, the shadow self is integral to our core personality and inner natures. Knowledge is power, so the Enneagram brings great wisdom regarding your own flaws and areas for self-development.


  • It assists you in developing more self-love by helping you to understand yourself deeper, better, and more profoundly. This can further help you self- evolve, and expand your unique talents, gifts & abilities. Strength and personal empowerment can arise through “knowing thyself”- a term and state of awareness often associated with systems for growth and self- evolution. This encourages you to work consciously and with mindful self- talk (Self- communication, transparency and honesty) on parts of your personality that may inhibit your ability to live a harmonious and healthy life.


  • It can help you achieve health, vitality and lead to a unification and harmony of all aspects of self. We are more than a physical body,we have a mind, emotions, spirit and a soul, and we also have subtle versions of ourselves existing. On the spiritual, etheric and astral planes there is a part of ourselves- our true selves- existing and interacting with our daily selves. This is often called and strongly related to the Higher Self, the part of us which recognizes our connection with the divine and something beyond this 3- dimensional plane of existence. Learning about the Enneagram and your own subsequent personality traits opens you up to new ways of perceiving, thinking and feeling. 


  • Linking to the last point, the Enneagram can also help align you with your true path, soul service, or sense of life purpose and/ or destiny. We all have a calling in the world- a unique “soulprint”- and overcoming our shadow aspects and integrating our strengths and qualities is an essential step to attaining this. New heights can be reached, new opportunities can arise, and new and advanced or evolved levels of awareness can be attained. 


  • Finally, through learning about your core struggles, passions, holy ideals and virtues (explored below) you can come to terms with those parts of yourself you may not want to accept, and the most brilliant and beautiful aspects you have yet to fully embody and balance. 


It is also important to note that having or resonating with a “type” doesn’t mean you are boxed into one personality. You can be one type but share aspects of another, or many others, simultaneously; resonating with a type means that the tendencies from that personality manifest stronger, and that you are more prone to the positive and negative aspects than the other Enneatypes. Your type is you “basic personality type” acting as a foundation and core aspect of your true nature. 


The Virtues, Passions, Holy Ideas, and Fixations


The Enneagram has been created and adapted from spiritual and religious traditions, therefore with this comes the phrases Virtues, Passions, Holy Ideas and Fixations. These are based on the idea of there being a “divine form” and “holy essence” to life itself, and our core natures.

The Holy Ideas are the higher aspects of yourself relating to the higher mind, or Higher Self. Each Holy Idea has a corresponding Virtue, which are qualities of the heart and usually symbolized by pure and positive emotions. When we lose self- awareness and presence, the positive attributes of the Holy Idea transforms into an Ego- Fixation, also known as the Fixations.

Simultaneously, losing touch with your Virtue can create the associated characteristics of Passion. Passions are our untamed, primal and animal nature often described as the “lower self,” or at least aspects of it. Instinct replaces intuition- a quality associated with the higher self- and all aspects of divine higher connection and spiritual contact are replaced. 

 This diagram from (Copyrighted material) helps show the relationship between these essential Enneagram aspects better.

Ir is our innate and fundamental connection to soul that allows us to connect to the Holy Ideas and Virtues, whereas it is our natural tendencies and drive towards our “inner animals,” our instinctual, primal and human selves, which equally create the Fixations and Passions. Being aware of these can help you on your journey to spiritual enlightenment, self- development, and personal growth and transformation. Knowing your “type” allows you to increase presence and higher awareness, so you can learn to contemplate and embody the higher qualities of your true self. 

Let’s look at the specifics in relation to each personality type. The order expressed is HOLY IDEA – VIRTUE – PASSION – FIXATION:

Type 1: Perfection, Serenity, Anger… Resentment

Type 2: Will/ Freedom, Humility, Pride… Flattery

Type 3: Hope, Truthfulness, Deceit… Vanity

Type 4: Origin, Equanimity/ Calm, Envy… Melancholy

Type 5: Transparency, Non- attachment/ Selflessness, Greed… Stinginess

Type 6: Faith, Courage, Fear… Cowardice

Type 7: Wisdom/ Plan, Sobriety, Gluttony… Planning

Type 8: Truth, Innocence, Lust… Vengeance

Type 9: Love, Action, Slothfulness… Indolence/ Laziness 



Spiritual Awareness and Emotional Maturity/ Intelligence 

In addition to the profound effects the Enneagram has on your personality traits, physical life- in terms of choices and life direction- and in understanding our shadow (Ego- Fixations and Passions), it can also be used as a spiritual healing tool, and route to understanding emotional habits. This subsequently can lead to greater and evolved levels of empathy, emotional intelligence, and intuition

If you are interested in knowing more, here are some great resources:


The Wisdom of the Enneagram, by Don Richard Riso & Russ Hudson 

The Enneagram in Love and Work: Understanding Your Intimate and Business Relationships , by Helen Palmer 

The Spiritual Dimension of the Enneagram, by Sandra Maitri 

Facets of Unity, by A.H. Almaas